HCP A=4 K=3 Q=2 J=1 All aces =+1 13 pts no aces =-1
LP : each card in suit over 4:+1/ card (Opening = HCP + LP)
SP : Void =5 Singleton =3 Doubleton =1 (Fit of 8+ trumps =HCP + SP)
Bad : Each singleton K/ Q/ J = -1
Weak Holdings : Doubleton Q-J or 4-3-3-3, for 2 of = -1
Balanced : No void or singleton, max 1 doubleton (4-3-3-3 / 5-3-3-2 / 4-4-3-2)
Semi-balanced : 2 or 3 doubletons, no void or singleton (5-4-2-2 / 6-3-2-2 / 7-2-2-2)
K-x / Q-J-x = .5, K-Q / K-J-10 = 1, A-Q / A-J-10 / K-Q-J = 1.5, A-K = 2, A-K-Q = 2.5
Points : <26 stop in lowest poss. part score, 3NT=26+ & bal., 4H/4S=26+ & 8+ trumps,
5C /5D=29+ & 8+ trumps, 6(suit)=33+ & 8+ trumps, 6NT=33+ & 8+ trumps, 7(suit)=37+ & 8+ trumps, 7NT=37+
Slam With 8-9 trumps should have A-K-Q, with 10-11 have A-K, Small = opponent cannot take 2 immediately, Grand = opponent can take none immediately.
Remember : Suit Quality Test - length + hons in suit = no. of tricks to bid, count J-10 if higher hons held
Hints and Tips
Don't rescue partner & show strength when have it.
If suit has unequal length between the 2 hands win tricks with high cards in the short hand first.
Usually cover an honour with an honour
When there is a trump suit leading from A-K combination is usually effective while leading from other holdings headed by the Ace is usually not effective ie can tell if leader has ace
Best counter to crossruff likelihood is to lead trumps early & often
The lead : if NT & longest, strongest suit headed by 3 touching high cards lead one of them - else 4th highest. If trump & longest suit is headed by 2 touching high cards lead one of them
Pre-emptive Shut out, opening 3+ = <=10 HCP & 7+ card suit & within 3 tricks of the bid (non vulnerable) /2 (vulnerable) i.e. 3 (suit) =6 / 7 tricks. Do not pre-empt beyond game & don't bid again unless forced, count each card in long suit as 1 & add other winners.
After opponent's pre-empt use take out doubles / next minor suit (as agreed with partner)
Balanced hand 12-14 = 1NT (don't do if partner passed), 15-19 = bid suit & move to NT later, 20-22 = 2NT, 3NT = long, solid minor & hope. With 5-3-3-2 & 5 card major prefer suit opening
Unbalanced 0-11= pass unless pre-empting, 12-20= 1(suit)(or 10-11 & LP), 18-20 & 8/9 playing tricks=2D / 2H / 2S, 21-23 & 5+card=2S / 2H / 2D (alt:benjamin / weak 2s), 23+ or 10+ playing tricks =2C
Suit selection 5+ card = open longest, 5-5-x-x or 6-6-1=open highest rank, 4-4-3-2 outside NT range = open lowest, 4-4-4-1 black singleton = open middle / red singleton = open below single
May know point count & if game possible (show strength or 1 rnd forcing) else weak reply
Prefer 1(major) to raise to minor or 1NT
Support = 4+card (or 3 if 6-10 & shortage)
1S-2H=5 hearts in responders hand, opener should raise hearts with 3+ trumps
Bidding by a passed hand Jump shift (1S-3C)=max pass, 11-12 & 4 card supp. for partners suit, not forcing, change of suit=@1 lev (4+ & 6-11) @ 2 lev (5+ & 10-11)
Pre-emptive response Count winners (A-K-Q in partners suit=1,others A-K=2,A-Q=1.5, K-Q=1, K=.5), support+singleton=+1, support+void=+2. If winners <=required then pass else game / slam (prefer openers suit), change of suit is forcing (5+ strong), if partner opened 3C / 3D try 3NT with bal. & 16+ & other suits covered
1NT response 2C=Staymen (Opener strength=11+, at least 1*5+ card major& shortage or weakness=<11 & long clubs - rebid @ 2 or 3 level to show weakness, respond 2S = 4S!4H, 2H=4H maybe 4S, 2D= no 4 card major), 2D/2H/2S=weak, to play, 3NT (13) to play, 3C/3D / 3H/3S=force to game, 5+card,2NT= 11-12pts not suitable for staymen, opener pass on 12 else 3NT, 4H / 4S to play (12-14 & 6+), 4NT=inviting slam 17-19, opener pass (12), 5NT (13), 6NT (14-often fails) alt 17-19 use Gerber on 33+
2NT Response Game bids to be played, 3C=staymen, 3D/3H/3S=5+ card forcing to game, stronger than game bid, 4NT inviting slam opener pass (20), 5NT (21), 6NT (22) alt Gerber
3NT Response 4H / 4S to play, 4C/4D/5C opener passes or bids the other minor if is openers longer suit
1 suit responses pass (0-5), new suit @ 1 lev (6+, 4 card, 1 rand forcing), new lower suit @ 2 lev (10-16, 4 card, 1 rnd forcing), jump bid in new suit (16+ HCP, forcing to game, maybe slam), 6-10 points any shape = 1NT. NTs - 1NT (6-10 denies major except 1S-1NT also 6-10 any shape), 2NT (11-12 bal no 4 maj), 3NT (13-15 bal no 4 maj), Raises to 2 lev (supp, 6-10), 3 (supp, 11-12), 4 (exceptional supp, unbal < 11 HCP, shutout). With 13-15 HCP & supp for openers major bid new suit now & go game next
2C Response 0-7 2D -ve, 8+ or 1.5 tricks +ve suggesting slam
2D/2H/2S Response (Not weak 2s or Benjamin), 0-7 2NT -ve, 8+ or 1.5 tricks +ve forcing to game, 3H / 3S stronger than raise to game suggesting slam, 8-11 3NT bal
If fit use HCP+SP, don't raise 1 lev resp with 3 trumps, bid new suit @ 1 lev rather than 1NT
Balanced after 1 lev resp 1NT (15-16), 2NT (17-18), 3NT (19), after 2 lev 2NT (15-17), 3NT (18-19 or 17 with few weak holdings or bad features).
Unbalanced 12-16 raise resp suit with 4 supp, bid new 4 card @ 1 lev, bid lower @ 2 lev, rebid 1st suit; 17-18 jump raise responders, bid new (inc reverse), jumps rebid your 1st with 6+ card & no 2nd, 19-22 jump to game in responders major, your major or jump shift
After 2C opening 1st suit rebid is 5+ card, game forcing, 2NT=23-24 bal not forcing - contine as 2NT opening, raise to below game stronger than game, after +ve resp bidding usually ends in slam (Blackwood)
After 2D/2H/2S opening After 2NT -ve if opener rebids a new suit higher than opening suit or jump rebids below game responder must bid back, after +ve resp bid at least to game
Don't raise openers 2nd with only 3 card (2nd implies only 4 card), in bidding game prefer 4H/4S/3NT/5C/5D. Don't rebid 5 card if any other action poss, after 3 suits 2 or 3NT promises stopper in other. Jumps rebids by responder (except in new suit) are not forcing, don't bid jumps if can go game.
6-10 Raise openers 2nd, support openers 1st, rebid own 1st, bid 1NT. New suit=4th suit forcing except after 1NT, if opener responded with jump raise or jump rebid then pass on 6-7 & bid back to 8-9. Must respond if opener jump shifted.
11-12 Jump to 2NT, jump raise openers 1st or 2nd or own, all non forcing, encouraging, else use 4th suit forcing
13+ insist or bid game, 4th suit forcing, jump in new suit
Defending Partnership Bids
Neil double = always a double ie not a penalty after 1NT opening
Take out doubles @ 1 or 2 lev & partner not bid (not inc. 1NT which is penalty double), 12-15 shortage in suit doubled & supp or tolerance for unbid suits esp. majors & 3-4 card majors = double then pass any min reply, 16-18 unsuitable for NT overcall=double & bid again without jumping (not NTs), 19-21=double&bid NT,22+ double & jump in NT or new or partners suit. In exceptional cases may jump to game after partners min reply - if powerful hand & superb supp. in partners suit. Responder HCP+SP, 0-2 pass if at high lev else bid 5 card maj, 3-8 pts bid at cheapest lev, prefer 4 card maj, 9-12 jump bid, 13+ bid game or enemy suit, NTs-deny major + show stopper in opp. suit: 1NT (6-10), 2NT (11-12), 3NT (13-15). Priority majors, Nts, minors
Simple Overcalls Suit overcalls : 5+ card & 2-3 honours, HCP+LP 8-10=1 lev, 11-16=2 lev. NT overcalls : 1NT=16-18 bal & hon. in opp. suit proceed as 1NT opening, 2NT=both 5+minors & 8-12 & 2+ hons can be sacrifice bid on 2S / 2H opening, 3NT=solid 7 card minor & stopper in opp. suit run 9 tricks when get lead. Replies (not forcing, changes of suit= 5+card) : 8-11 + supp = raise, 8-11+bal=1NT, 12-15+supp=jump raise, 12-15+bal = jump to 2NT, 16+=bid game, jump shift, bid enemy suit (ie points for game unknown suit). 3Card okay for supp.
Jump Overcalls Strong 17-20 & 5-6 card. Responding=If >=26 pts in partnership & JO was major try to supp, if minor try to 3NT, change of suit is forcing (5+card), 1st to bid NT promises stopper in the opposition suit. Double or triple JO=pre-emptive & work as pre-emptives (except JO to 4H or 4S (can inclue up to 15HCP)) replying to triple JO is same as resp to pre-emptives
Staymen shows strength (11+ & min 1*5 card maj & shortage) or weaknes (<11& long clubs, rebid @ 2 or 3 lev to show) - if poor hand pass - is looking for strength in majors. Responses : 2S=4S!4H, 2H=4H maybe 4S, 2D=no 4 card major
Blackwood min 33. 4NT (5C=0/4 aces, 5D=1,5H=2,5S=3) 5NT (6C=0 kings,6D=1,6H=2, 6S=3, 6NT=4)
Gerber min 33. & after 1 or 2NT opening, 1 suit higher at 1 lower lev than Blackwood, 4C (4D=0/4A,4H=1,4S=2,4NT=3) 5C (5D=0 kings, 5H=1, 5S=2, 5NT=3, 6C=4) (4C=Always Gerber)
Cue bidding of enemy suit bid directly over opening, take out bid, force to game, need 2 opening hand (2C, 2D in Benjamin)
4th Suit Forcing strong hand >=10, no clear rebid & enough for game & slam poss. Opener rebids after 4th suit by priority to 3 supp. for responders major & NT if has stopper in 4th suit. With more than min opening hand opener should rebid over 4th suit. Responders jump rebid in 4th suit shows at least 5-5 in the suits bid & enough for game
Reverse bids by opener new suit bid @ 2 lev in a suit higher ranking than that opened, not forcing but invitational. Promises 1st suit longer than 2nd. Never with equal len suits. Promises more than min opening (>=15 HCP). Rebids after reverse: 6-8=not forcing raise openers 1st or 2nd, rebid responders, bid 2NT; opener may carry on but is warned. 9+ = forcing - any jump rebid below game, building the 4th suit. After an initial 2 lev resp (ie the responder's first bid - the one before the reverse) there are no weak rebids by responder & is game forcing.
Jump Shifts by opener - on rebid - jump rebid in new suit, forcing to game, 20+ hand which with responders is enough for game, promises unbal, usually 5+ in 1st & 4 in 2nd or equal len. Responder rebids after jump shift - prefer openers 1st if have 3 supp, raise openers 2nd if 4 supp. If can supp both the supp. longer. Rebid responders suit if 5+ card, Rebid NT is have 4th covered, Rebid 4th suit. Don't pass below game, consider slam poss. with 11+ & trump fit. Prefer openers major to minor
Do not rescue opponents â€“ why bid when you have their suit?
The lead from J x is the worst lead
Concentrate on the opening lead â€“ decide what it tells you about length and strength in that suit
Review the bidding â€“ use the opening lead and bidding to try picture hands
For suit contracts count your losers, for NT contracts count winners.
Lead attacking combinations such a Q-J-10-x